Managing Human Resources (MGMT 641) was taught by Prof. Drost. His guidance for the comp exam was to concentrate on Recruitment & Selection and Appraisal. Diane confirmed that this means that you should concentrate not just on the questions on the mid-term and final but also on the list of study questions that pertain to these areas.

Please use this space to share your study guide for this class.

Midterm #3 - Dana Cano

48/50 Answer. I will summarize Drost's response at the end of my answer.

The three phases of employee recruitment process are:

· Generating applicants
· Maintaining applicant status
· Influencing job-choice decision

Generating applicants involves getting the applicants attention. But prior to getting attention, an organization must determine what type of applicant they are looking for. The best practices for an organization to generate attention and applicants would entail messages vivid in nature (pictures), messages with clear and concrete information, messages with unusual or unexpected information, and messages with personally relevant information (Breaugh & Starke). Realistic job previews are essential in generating applicants. A realistic preview into an organization will allow the applicants to make an informed decision and the opportunity to self-select out. An organization can use the "fly paper" approach. This is to generate the largest pool of applicants with hopes of finding a number of top candidates. The "fly paper" approach only conveys the "sweet" positive information of an organization and job. This approach can be costly and ineffective in finding the applicant most desired by an organization. Employee referrals are a successful method of generating applicants. Current employees have a certain amount of pressure to refer a good candidate to not reflect badly on his/her judgment. Employee referrals are generally low in cost and referrals also give applicants the most realistic job and organization previews. The internet is also effective method. The internet provides plenty of space for job descriptions and information about the organization. A disadvantage of the internet is the ease of application.
Maintaining applicant status involves the possibility of job openings and the likelihood a job offer might be made to an applicant. Job opening attractiveness also influences application status. Best practices for maintaining application status include staying in contact with candidate, timely offer of job, realistic job previews and on-site visits.
(Drost comment: Please elaborate).
Recruiters play a role in influencing job-choice decisions. According to Breaugh and Stark, recruiters must be personable, credible, informative, and demographically diverse. How trustworthy a recruiter is perceived to be influences job decisions. The on-site visit and the “professional” aspect of an on-site visit influence a candidate. If an applicant is made to feel special, that portrays the likelihood the candidate will feel special after being hired (Breaugh & Stark). Compensation and balancing work and life contribute to decisions. Also, the brand image of an organization, the best company to work for.

Drost Comments:
#3 The three phases of recruitment are accurate. 10/10

Generating applicants – This is an excellent response.

Maintaining applicant interest – Key points – attractive job – likelihood of a job offer clearly specified. However, lean on “best practices” – can you explain a bit about the site visit? Realistic job previews – These are correct – but just listed – not explained – a sentence or two each?

Influencing job choice – good job
Emphasize recruiter in formativeness – candidates receiving more information are more likely to accept a job offer. And, they perceive jobs more attractive. Also, a lack of information is perceived as unprofessional (Breaugh & Starke). The other issues discussed are ‘right on’

My notes on the appraisal questions from the Holly
Dr. Drost

What are the potential organizational consequences of an ineffective performance appraisal system? Explain. What are the keys to an effective appraisal system (be sure to integrate information from the lecture, text and related readings)? Explain.

The potential organizational consequences of an ineffective performance appraisal system include demotivating employees, wasting time and resources, damage to the manager/subordinate working relationship, hindering employee growth and development, frustrating managers, and breeding cynicism and negative attitudes among employees and managers. Ultimately, a poor performance appraisal system can reduce employee and managerial performance and opens the door for employee appeals or challenges to the review process or litigation. This can further cause damage to the credibility of the HR/management functions.
The appraisal system should establish what the organization has determined as effective performance within the organization. The appraisal system should support and define what the organization values, what be3haviors and contributions are regarded and the performance results that are expected. The appraisal process should be used to evaluate each employee’s contribution and to determine their pay increase.
In addition to compensation, results of appraisals should be used as critical inputs to strategic, staffing, succession and replacement planning, training needs analysis, evaluation of the selection and recruitment practices, legal documentation for promotion and termination decisions and in the evaluation of HR management and programs designed to improve performance.
The keys to an effective performance appraisal system include effective system design, effective management system practices, and effective appraisal system support. Effective system appraisal design is the foundation for effective appraisal practice. It is important to establish a clear purpose for the appraisal, solicit employee/manager input, create effective rating forms and procedures as well as educating/training managers and employees on their role in the process. Effective management rating practices should include performance planning activities, ongoing feedback and coaching by mangers, and programs to motivate raters to conduct effective and honest appraisal interviews. Organizations need to have top management support and modeling of correct practices, appraisal outcomes linked to performance ratings, and ongoing systems review/corrective action.
Employees should have clear expectations, feedback, fairness, clear language, sufficient merit pay, and constructive criticism with feedback on how to improve. Appraisals should focus on job duties and goal setting can be a powerful motivator for employees.

In “Behind the Mask; The Politics of Employee Appraisal,: Longenecker,, found that executives might intentionally either inflate or deflate an appraisal. Why would executives do this?

Executives might intentionally either inflate or deflate an appraisal due to political or personal reasons. Accuracy in appraisals may be unattainable or undesirable. According to research, accuracy is not the primary concern of managers when appraising subordinates. Managers report that their main concern is how they can best use the appraisal process to motivate and reward employees. Managerial discretion and effectiveness, not accuracy are the main utilization of the appraisal process. Managers are also concerned with accurate ratings causing problems for themselves due to politics.
Employee appraisal is not typically an objective, rational, or dispassionate process. Politics play a role in consideration of interpersonal dynamics between managers and their subordinates. The fact that it is a written document combined with the impact of the appraisal on the employees career and advancement may lead managers to inflate their ratings. A manager may also inflate ratings to maximize the employees pay increases in order to keep them happy and motivated. Inflated ratings may also be du to feeling sorry for an employee, encouraging improved performance or to avoid confrontation. A manager may deflate ratings due to HR forcing them to make ratings fit merit allowances or avoid airing problems to HR. Deflated ratings may also be utilized to send a message to a poor performer or rebellious employee. Another reason for deflated ratings are to utilize the appraisal as part of the termination process. Although not commonly admitted, some managers have inflated their ratings of a problem employee so that the employee can be promoted or transferred.